Nakayama Sensei goes on to explain three broad categories of kumite. I will continue to directly quote him here: “Basic kumite, jiyu ippon kumite and jiyu-kumite are three types of kumite.Basic kumite
In this most elementary form of kumite, the opponents take a fixed distance from each other and the target is agreed on beforehand. They then alternately practice blocking and attacking. This may be done as a single block and attack–ippon kumite–or a series of five–gohon kumite.
Jiyu ippon kumite
The late Minoru Miyata was my classmate and a colleague of mine since the founding of the Japan Karate Association. From his long years of experience, he held a clearly defined view of jiyu ippon kumite and jiyu kumite. Since he was a man who capabilities were highly evaluated by others and one whom I had very great confidence. I would like to quote him on this subject. The method of jiyu ippon kumite is this. Both men take a kamae freely at an optional distance. Announcing the area he is aiming for, the attacker attacks decisively. Against this the blocker freely uses techniques he has mastered and counterattacks at once. This is a training method; the purpose is to put into actual practice the techniques of offense and defence. This is jissen (actual fighting) kumite.” - MASATOSHI NAKAYAMA `BEST KARATE 3 - KUMITE 1'. Nakayama Sensei doesn't mention Kaeshi ippon kumite in 'Best Karate' but for those who do not practice Shotokan, I believe it is best defined (in brief) as "a form of Jiyu ippon kumite which develops `attacking zanshin".
© André Bertel. Christchurch, New Zealand 2011.