Thursday 5 August 2021

精神と技法 : PART THREE

Today I will provide a translated overview of the textbook 空手道 : 精神と技法 (‘Karate-Do: Kokoro to waza). With 390 pages the ‘Technique Section’ is largely re-hash of the content featured ‘Dynamic Karate’ but with some updates. However, what I’ve translated as the ‘Spirit/Heart/Mind Section’ is unique to this publication.


I’d like to state here that when necessary I’ve added the odd word or term for clarification; furthermore, omitted some words where they make sense in Japanese yet become confusing in English.


That being said, some terms may still cause some confusion as I felt unable to replace them without distorting Nakayama Sensei’s writing. Moreover, I wanted, as much as possible, to retain the terms he utilized in the publication.


Overall, with ‘Dynamic Karate’ already published in English and other languages, it is unnecessary for the ‘Technique Section’ to be translated. However, I will gradually translate the other section of the book (the ‘Spirit/Heart/Mind Section’) and THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF KARATE-DO’.


This month marks my 40th Year since I began my Karate Journey, more than quarter of which has been here in Japan. Nevertheless, when considering my seniors in this art—Japanese and Westerners alike—I’m still in awe of their excellence and knowledge. To those of you reading this, I am sending a big bow from my dojo here to you. These karateka, many of which were direct students of Nakayama Masatoshi Sensei, are especially inspirational for me in my daily training. Accordingly, I really want to offer my gratitude to you all. 押忍!


Now I’d like to say that this task, time wise, is very appropriate and, indeed, a humbling process. Unequivocally, looking at greatness inherently does this. In this regard, I believe that in any endeavor, the only way forward is humility as we must constantly see, understand and evaluate ourselves with self-honesty. Moreover, from this vantage point we must face our weaknesses and problem-solve to eradicate them. THIS TRULY IS THE PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL KARATE JOURNEY, which is travelled through the physical training of this form of budo.


‘Karatedo: Kokoro to waza’ shows that this must be done by self seeking precise budo karate kihon, and also the need for seeking the very best mentors. When we think of the numerous unparalleled karateka that Nakayama Sensei was instrumental in producing, I think it’s impossible to think of a better mentor in the history of the Shotokan system. Hence, his work, especially in regards to the 'underpinning psychological aspects' of our art is of particular importance. This point cannot be stressed enough, especially now in a world focused on 'performance dance', 'kabuki face' and 'screaming kata'; furthermore,   'tip-tap-tag kumite' followed by disgusting etiquette and 'high fives', which is unacceptable in any form of Japanese Budo/Bujutsu. Such actions only confirm the vast chasm between BUDO and sports karate.

To conclude, I hope that this is of some use to our Shotokan Family who follow Budo Karate—irrespective of organization or dojo. Also to our Budo friends in other Kaiha/Ryuha. My best wishes and positive energy from Oita City, Kyushu, Japan.


アンドレ  バーテル

André Bertel.






·        Preface/Foreword


·        The 20 precepts of Shoto (The Niju Kajo)


·        Table of contents


·        Index







The Beginning


Chapter 1   The infancy phase of Karate


Chapter 2   Chinese Kenpo and the Kenpo of Okinawa


Chapter 2   From Karate to Karatedo





The Long process towards to making a modern karate competition


Chapter 1   From exchange training style to a more formal competitive match



-      Brought to the 11th tournament (Mishima Yukio)

-      Karate as a competitive sport (Tetsuo Kishiro)



Chapter 2   Differences in ideas and behaviors: between the West and the






Karatedo scriptures


Chapter 1   What is Karatedo


Chapter 2   Emptiness and nothingness





Zen and Budo


Chapter 1   Establishment of modern zen in Japan


Chapter 2   Zen content and personality


Chapter 3   The practice of zen and the performing arts





The ‘Kokoro’ (heart) of Karate-Do


Chapter 1   There is no first attack in karate


Chapter 2   There is no kamae in karate


Chapter 3   The itinerary in the minds of karate practitioners









Overall perspective of the foundational techniques


       Preface / The foundational techniques of Karate-Do


1             Karate-Do is scientifically based


2             The form of physical stability and center of gravity in movement


3             Power and speed


4             Concentration of power


5             The driving force of movements is muscular strength


6             Rhythm


7             Timing


8             ‘Tanden’ and waist



Chapter 1  Stance and posture


1             In a rotational form


2             What is a good way to make stances


3             Stance stability


4             How to practice stances



Chapter 2  Rotation and driving force of the waist


1             About the rotation of the waist (hip rotation)


2             Extruding the waist (hip drive/thrust)



Chapter 3  Balance / Center of Gravity / Movement of the Center of Gravity



Chapter 4  The limbs are also weapons


1             About limb training


2             How to use the hands


3             About the rotation of the waist (hip rotation)






Training of the foundational techniques


Chapter 1  Tsuki (Thrusts) / Theory and Practice


1             How to make thrusts


2             Types of thrusts


3             The basic technicality of thrust / direct collision


Factor one: Correct Trajectory


Factor two: Speed


Factor three: Concentration of Power


4             Gyaku-zuki


5             Stance and impact distance


6             Jun-zuki (Oi-zuki)


7             Nagashi-zuki


8             Kizami-zuki



Chapter 2  Uchi (Strikes) / Theory and Practice


1             How to strike


2             Closed fist strikes


3             Strikes with the elbows


4             Shuto uchi (Sword hand strike)




Chapter 3  Keri (Kicking) / Theory and Practice


1             Kicking is a powerful weapon of karate


Factor one: Correct knee squeeze


Factor two: Snap via the bending and stretching of the knee


Factor three: Waist and Ankle Spring


2             Various kicks and practice methods


Karate photographically analyzed via bursts with a strobe flash


-      Shirai Hiroshi Sensei: Tobi Yoko-geri

-      Asai Tetsuhiko Sensei: Nidan-geri

-      Yaguchi Yutaka Sensei: Yoko-geri kekomi

-      Kanazawa Hirokazu Sensei: Board breaking with mae-geri




Chapter 4  Uke (Recieving) / Theory and Practice


1             The characteristics of ukewaza (receiving techniques) in Karate-Do


2             The foundational techniques of receiving


Factor one: Direction to apply force (trajectory/course)


Factor two: Twist and timing


Factor three: Uke with koshi (the waist/hips)


Factor four: Relationship between the elbows and flanks


Factor five: Do not receive too much (over action is incorrect)


Factor six: Receiving is also a kimewaza (Decisive technique)



3             Basic form / The procedure and practice of Ukewaza


4             Use of special parts


5             Receiving using both hands


6             Receiving kicking techniques


7             Foundational practice of receiving





Training of the foundational techniques


Chapter 1  Response to jodan (upper level) attacks


 Combinations of receiving and decisive techniques (countering)


Chapter 2  Response to chudan (middle level) attacks


Combinations of receiving and decisive techniques (countering)


Chapter 3  Response to gedan (lower level) attacks


Combinations of receiving and decisive techniques (countering)




Completion of foundational technique training


Chapter 1  Fundamental practice



1             Jun zuki practice


2             Sanren zuki practice


3             Jodan age uke practice


4             Jodan age uke kara chudan gyaku zuki practice


5             Chudan ude uke practice


6             Chudan ude uke kara chudan gyaku zuki practice


7             Chudan ude uke kara yori ashi chudan yoko enpi uchi practice


8             Shuto uke practice


9             Shuto uke kara nukite practice


10         Uraken yokomawashi uchi practice


11         Jodan kizami zuki kara chudan oi zuki, uraken jodan yokomawashi uchi, shuto jodan sotomawashi uchi soshite shuto jodan uchimawashi uchi practice


12         Mae geri keage practice


13         Mawashi geri practice


14         Yoko geri keage and Yoko geri kekomi practice


15         Mae geri keage kara mawashi geri, yoko geri (yoko keage or yoko kekomi) practice


16         Ippo sagatte jodan age uke kara mawashi geri, uraken jodan yokomawashi uchi soshite chudan jun zuki practice


17         Mawashi geri kara yoko geri (yoko keage or yoko kekomi) practice


18         Mae geri keage de ashi onaji yoko geri kekomi practice


19         Mae geri keage kara yoko geri (keage matawa kekomi) soshite ushiro geri kekomi practice



Chapter 2  Preparatory exercises and Training


Junbi undo (Preparatory exercises)


Training of the arms and legs


Training with the sandbag


Training with the makiwara


How to make a makiwara


Tools needed for karate training


Explanation of the various muscles necessary for karate


Map of the vital points on the human body






[End of content translation]


© André Bertel. Oita City, Japan (2021).

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